|Full Name||Dr. Victor Fries|
|Occupation||Cryogenicist (Formerly), College Teacher (Formerly), Professional Criminal (Formerly)|
|Base of Operations||Gotham City
|Affiliations||Nora Fries, Batman, Ferris Boyle (Formerly),
|Hair||None (Formerly Brown)
White (Arkham Knight)
|Height||6ft. 3in.; 6ft. 7in. (Armored)|
|Voice Actor||Maurice LaMarche|
|First Appearance||BATMAN #121 (February 1959)|
Victor Fries was a brilliant cryogenicist whose beloved wife, Nora, was stricken with a fatal degenerative disease. Fries placed Nora in suspended animation while he obsessively searched for a way to cure her, but the corporation that funded his research - and Nora's life - pulled the plug, and triggered an accident that transformed Fries' body into a cold-blooded form that must always kept at absolute zero. At normal room temperature, he would die.
While wielding a number of cryogenic weapons, Freeze wore protective armor on his quest to bring back his lovely wife and avenge her fate - which he partly held Batman responsible for.
Victor Fries began his interest in cryonics at a young age. As a child, he froze over a dozen of his neighbors' pets in an attempt to cure them of their sickness, and fully intended to revive all of them later. When he was caught, Fries was sent to reform school and was disowned by his parents.
Fries proved to be more than just a delinquent. He put himself through school studying biology and chemistry. He turned his childhood fascination with cryogenics into a stellar career. Fries began a career at the cryogenics division at GothCorp, becoming one of their top researchers. He later met a woman named Nora, with whom he fell in love and later married.
Before Arkham Origins Incident
Mr. Freeze was missing from the events of Arkham Origins that took place on Christmas Eve. However, Freeze was active for an unspecified time prior to his actions taken during Cold, Cold Heart on New Year's Eve. During that period, Victor put Nora into cryostasis to buy himself the time required to develop a cure for her terminal illness, Huntington's Chorea. Boyle approached Fries and worked out a deal: Fries would create cryogenic technology (mostly weapons) for GothCorp, and in exchange, Boyle would devote GothCorp resources to finding a cure for Nora. However, even as Victor held up his end of the deal, Boyle kept stalling on his. Victor eventually realized that Boyle was more interested in how he put Nora into cryostasis, which made him forget about their deal, and decided to do the research himself.
In response, Boyle and two guards attacked Fries in his lab and abducted Nora. In the struggle, Boyle knocked over a cryo-cannon, which froze one of the guards and hit a large container of cryogenic chemicals. The sudden pressure change caused the container to explode, and released a plume of chemicals that doused Victor and remaining guard. Boyle managed to escape the plume and fled the lab. The guard tried to flee also, but upon leaving the supercooled lab, he suffered heat stroke and died at the doorway.
Victor witnessed the guard's death, and he realized that the chemical that he had been exposed to had changed his metabolism, and as a result, he would have to keep his body temperature at subzero in order to survive. Inside the lab, Victor constructed a makeshift cryosuit out of prototype parts in order to survive. It was noticeably less advanced than the suit Freeze had in Arkham City, as he built it out of spare parts in the lab and not the technology that he created years later.
Cold, Cold Heart Incident
Freeze arrived with Penguin's Henchmen, attacked civilians at Wayne Manor in the Ballroom at the Wayne Humanitarian of the Year Awards Ceremony on New Years Eve, and demanded that Ferris Boyle be brought to him. While Batman was able to keep Ferris safe for the most part, he encountered Freeze, who was able to freeze him, abduct Boyle, and escape. Batman followed him, and discovered along the way, that Freeze had equipped some of Penguin's men with cryonic weaponry. While Batman was trying to track down Freeze, he was able to find out that Freeze had struck a deal with the Penguin: he supplied Penguin and his men with weapons, and Penguin got him and Boyle into GothCorp. Once In GothCorp, the deal went sour. Penguin believed that Freeze was holding out on him due to Freeze's refusal to allow him into a certain section of the lab (in reality, it was a chamber that housed Nora). At that moment, Batman arrived to see a firefight between Penguin, his henchmen, and Freeze. Batman dropped down and picked off the two snipers, and while Penguin's henchmen were distracted, Freeze froze them all, retook Boyle, and created a wall of ice behind him, although not before he told the vigilante that his threats meant nothing to him as he "lost everything." Batman not only required his XE Suit (Extreme Environment Batsuit), but also a cryo-drill to break through the ice wall. The drill also needed a coolant that was developed by Victor Fries. In the abandoned lab, Batman finally discovered the truth about Freeze's transformation and found the coolant that was the same substance that Freeze used in his suit.
Batman returned to GothCorp with the cryo-drill and was able to access the chamber after he broke through the ice wall. After Batman fought through Penguin's henchmen and overloaded the cryo-generators, he and Freeze began a battle around the lab. Freeze's makeshift armor was too strong for Batman to damage conventionally, but he was able to find multiple ways to hurt him and disable the propellant tank on his suit. Their fight was interrupted by an alert that signaled that Nora's pod began to fail. Freeze flash-froze the room before he returned to Nora in order to fix the problem, and Batman was able to attack him from below as well as he activated his Thermal Gloves to break his dome and took him down.
However, as he incapacitated Freeze, Boyle freed himself and used the ruptured pipes in the room to freeze Batman, who pushed Victor out of the way. Ferris then snapped off a pipe from Freeze's suit and began to beat him to death, while he cruelly gloated that he could watch Nora die first and then him. Batman was able to free himself, however, and knocked Ferris out with two punches and told the corrupt CEO to " take a seat, humanitarian" in disgust. He administered the coolant to Freeze, and fixed Nora's pod, and thus, saved her life. Batman told Victor that while he couldn't give him peace, he could give him justice.
It could be theorized that while Batman did indeed save both Nora and Freeze in the end, he stopped Freeze from rescuing her and escaping, something that Alfred pointed out when Bruce realized that her restoration was Freeze's only goal. The GCPD picked up Victor, and because of his condition, they did not put him in Blackgate Prison, so instead, they put him in Arkham Asylum when it reopened, and Nora was sent to Wayne Enterprises.
Assault on Arkham Incident
Freeze's Freeze Gun was found in the prisoner storage section of Arkham Asylum by Killer Frost and King Shark. Killer Frost attempted to use the Freeze Gun to kill Batman, but she failed. It was unknown when Freeze had constructed this version of the gun, as it was a stylized version of the one seen in Arkham City.
Road to Arkham Incident
Sometime before the Joker's control of Arkham Asylum started, Freeze escaped from his cell and fled Arkham Island. Exactly how and when he did this was unknown. Other villains who escaped the island with Freeze before the chaos were: The Ventriloquist, Penguin, Calendar Man, Catwoman, Black Mask, Firefly, Riddler, Great White Shark, Ratcatcher, Tweedledum and Tweedledee, Humpty Dumpty, and Maxie Zeus.
Arkham Asylum Incident
Freeze's cell, which was in the same wing as Arkham's most deranged cases, could be seen in Extreme Incarceration at the Penitentiary in Batman: Arkham Asylum, and could be scanned to unlock his biography.
Between Arkham Asylum and Arkham City Incident
Freeze was going to continue his research only to be manipulated by Hugo Strange. He was asked to recount his origin from Victor Fries to the villain his is today. In exchange, he would be told where his wife is. He told the professor about the pets, Nora, Boyle, and Batman. Eventually, Strange told him that Nora was being taken to the Joker for "insurance".
Freeze was blackmailed by the Joker to find a cure for his Titan Illness. Freeze was easily able to develop a cure for the disease, but he found that it degraded too quickly to be used, and required a restorative enzyme. As part of the gang war, Penguin wanted to hurt the clown. He stripped Freeze of his suit and weapons. Freeze and his suit were displayed separately in Penguin's War Room and the Armory respectively. Penguin also stole Freeze's Freeze Gun for his own amusement and to torture undercover cops sent by Commissioner Gordon.
Arkham City Incident
Batman got Freeze his suit and his freeze gun back and brought him the Penguin. Freeze got revenge by stepping on the Penguin's broken hand, only eased up when Batman told him to stop, and locked the Penguin in one of his own display cases. Batman asked for the cure, but Freeze explained that it was too unstable for use. Batman realized that he needed to get the restorative element the cure required: a sample of blood from Ra's al Ghul. Freeze returned to the old GCPD Building at Amusement Mile while Batman went after Ra's.
After Batman recovered the blood sample, Freeze was able to complete the cure and quickly locked it away in his safe. Batman demanded the cure, but Freeze refused, and destroyed one of the two vials of the cure. He informed Batman that Joker had Nora and Freeze ordered Batman to bring Nora back to him, and launched a full-scale attack against Batman. Batman was able to defeat Freeze and smashed the protective dome around his head to punch him, but stopped after a Joker hallucination from the poison.
When Batman attempted to retrieve the cure, however, he discovered that Harley Quinn was able to break into the safe and stole the other vial. Batman pursued her, at the insistence of Freeze, and agreed to also look for Nora. In exchange, Freeze gave Batman some Freeze Blasts that he had developed to help him break into the Steel Mill. Batman quickly found Nora in Warehouse 5B in the Falcone Shipping Yard at the Industrial District of Joker's Funland, informed Victor of her location, and reunited husband and wife. Freeze later appeared at the warehouse where Batman appealed to him to quit the life of crime and to focus on his wife.
After Arkham City Incident
It could be assumed that after the evacuation and shut down of Arkham City, Freeze was taken to a temporary holding cell while his wife was taken back to his lab. Unlike many inmates who sued the city for restitution after Hugo Strange's illegal activities, Freeze simply took his release papers, his wife, and a ship before he left Gotham.
Before Arkham Knight Incident
Freeze took Batman's advice to leave the criminal world and focus on his wife's cure, and set sail on her namesake ship. After months of work, Freeze was finally close to a cure, only a few days away. Scarecrow, however, still wanted Freeze to help in his final assault on Gotham City, and wanted him to personally capture Batman. Freeze refused the offer, and chose instead, to focus on the cure. In retaliation, Scarecrow sent the Militia to kidnap Nora. In the attack, the ship's Cryo-Generator was damaged, and Victor was forced to stay on board and repair it rather than going after Nora and risk losing the cure.
Arkham Knight Incident
When Batman arrived, Freeze pointed his new wrist freeze gun at Batman, and blamed him for the Militia kidnapping his wife. Batman told Freeze to shoot him if he trusted them. Freeze stood down and begged for Batman's help, and, in the process, made it clear that he blamed him for his current crisis. Freeze gave Batman a device that could lead him to Nora's cryo-chamber before he returned to his work.
While Batman was out searching, Freeze continued his attempts to repair the generator before it could detonate until he was distracted by a call from Batman that alerted him that Nora was awake. In a panic, Victor left his station and inadvertently allowed the generator to reach critical mass. He was distressed to see wife out of her containment unit. He pled for Batman to put her back in, while he worked on the cure. She cried saying, Don't you see? I don't need saving." She simply wanted to live out her last days with him. At that moment, the generator malfunctioned, freezing Gotham Bay and causing it snow across the city. The Militia took advantage of the newly frozen bay by launching a colossal assault of drones on the ship. Working together with Nora in tow, Batman and Freeze were able to slow the siege, but were quickly overwhelmed. Freeze then had to make a choice: Allow the generator to explode and take out the Militia, but lose his cure and all of his work in the process, or let himself and Nora be killed by the Militia then and there. Victor detonated the generator, at Nora's request.
With the siege over and his life's work gone, Victor begged Nora to let him freeze her again so he could resume his search for a cure. Nora explained that she would rather live out the rest of her days with Victor than be frozen for another decade, and be unable to do anything but witness her husband's descent into villainy and madness. Victor realized that she was correct, agreed, and the two vowed to spend their few remaining days together.
Victor and Nora were last seen holding hands on the bow of the ship, and their time in Gotham was over.
Victor's love for his wife was so great that he would do literally everything to find a cure for her illness. He committed company espionage, robbery, murder, extortion and even became a career criminal because he didn't want to lose her. Ironically Victor's ruthlessness in attempting to cure Nora by placing her in cryo-stasis created a gap between the two of them. As she was conscious of her surroundings while frozen she knew what her husband had become to save her. In Arkham Knight she even begged of Victor to "let her live" with whatever few days she had with him instead of an eternity separated in cryo-stasis.
He may also suffer from some kind of attachment disorder as Victor appears incapable of letting anyone go. It's revealed in the Patient Files from Arkham City that he froze his family pets in attempt to save them until he discovered a cure and was disgusted that his parents were prepared to put them down so easily. This is a similar situation with Nora. She was perfectly accepting towards her death but Victor, unable to lose her began a decade-long obsession and amoral hunt to save her, no matter how many lives it would cost. Victor projects his blame or guilt for his own losses rather than accept blame on himself or come to terms with his own losses. His hatred towards Batman was that he prevented him for killing Ferris Boyle as he was partly responsible for his inability to save his wife. Victor did show gratitude however towards the vigilante but initially blamed Batman on the Militia kidnapping Nora as he refused to join Scarecrow's Army and she was used as a trump card to force him otherwise.
Though the root of his illegal actions are to discover a cure Victor also has a sense of vengeance. After surviving his lab accident his first action was to kill Ferris Boyle for refusing to follow through on his deal. He may have developed sadistic tendencies. He crushed Penguin's hand, which was broken, out of retribution for locking him up in his display case with apathetic satisfaction. Victor also gave a graphic and detailed threat on what he would do to Strange when he imprisoned him in Arkham City.
Victor lost most of his aggressive personality in Arkham Knight. However, needless to say, his ruthless protection over Nora remained intact as he was able to freeze the Militia soldiers that attacked his ship without so much a second thought. He was also prepared to attack Batman to deliver him to the Militia in exchange for his wife. As Victor did not trust them, he instead forms an alliance with Batman to rescue Nora. In the end, Victor was able to do one last heroic deed: put aside his endless hunt and detonated Noras' Cryo-chamber which was able to destroy the Militia's tanks. After that, Nora (who finally woke up from cryo-stasis), and Victor left Gotham to spend their final days together.
In Arkham Origins, Freeze appeared as his skin was altered into a cold blooded form that was caused by the tank that exploded. He wore a super cooled survival suit that kept his coolant subzero temperature to survive and powered up with super coolant in his suit. On his suit, Freeze had a cryo coolant tank that was located on the back, and he had a right-handed cryo cannon which was connected to his suit that fired, a protective dome over his head, and had a GothCorp logo on his suit. Freeze wore red lens thermal goggles that he used to scan for targets.
In Arkham City, Freeze appeared without his suit on after being captured the Penguin and his men and put in a display case in the War Room at the Museum. Freeze had a chemical coolant in his chest that kept him alive and wore black cryo pants and boots with coolant tubes that connected to the coolant. Freeze wore a new high-tech metallic freeze suit with technology and weaponized cryo equipment and held a newer and advanced cryogenic freeze ray. Freeze wore a protective dome around his head and wore a new set of high-tech red thermal goggles that scanned for targets. His frostbitten fingers are pitch-black and his ears have been reduced to stubs.
In Arkham Knight, Freeze constructed a newer and sleeker suit, that resembled a hazmat suit with far less bulk than previous versions. However, the most unique feature of Freeze's new suit were his gauntlets, which contained his freeze weapon technology that enabled him to fire beams of ice from his hands; he no longer had his iconic Freeze Gun as it was turned in to the GCPD after Arkham City. Those new Freeze Rays appeared to be incredibly powerful, and were able to destroy Militia tanks and froze stronger ones. Freeze also retained his thermal goggles. They resembled a pair of heavily-modified welding goggles, the lenses flipped down and activated when Freeze was in danger rather than having him wear them all the time, and they flipped up and deactivated once he was out of danger.
Cold, Cold Heart Fight:
In the end of the DLC story, Batman and Freeze battled inside GothCorp in a cooling chamber where Nora was locked up. Like in Arkham City, direct attacks won't work on Freeze, so instead the player must use their predator skills to fight him, although, due to the icy environment, only a few options are available:
- Perform a Silent Takedown from behind (it was best to use this Takedown as a way to start the battle since Freeze started to leak cryogenic fluid which froze Batman and anyone who got near him)
- Perform a Corner Takedown
- Perform a Weak Wall Takedown
- Perform an Explosive Gel Takedown
- Perform a Vent Takedown
- Perform a Tightrope Takedown
- Perform a Zipline Takedown
- Use the Thermocharged Batarang to drop a stalactite on top of him (this is the easiest method to defeat since he will not be able to track Batman down or freeze him if you fail to drop it on top of him).
Once Freeze has lost enough life, a warning signal will state that Nora's Cryopod is losing power, Freeze will turn his attention to her and the player will simply have to get under Freeze for the final Takedown.
Arkham City Fight:
The battle with Freeze takes place in the GCPD lab. Freeze again cannot be attacked directly, and instead must be weakened by using the following methods:
- Perform a Silent Takedown
- Perform a Reverse Ledge Takedown
- Perform a Takedown through a glass window or a glass ceiling
- Destroy a weak wall as he walks past it with the Explosive Gel.
- Use the Disruptor to disable his freeze gun.
- Activate magnets with the Remote Electrical Charge.
- Strike him from behind while riding the Line Launcher.
- Land on top of him using the Drop Attack or the Glide Kick.
- Perform a Takedown from a floor grate.
- Activate the electrical current between the two frayed wires on top of the icy floor.
- Destroy a glass ceiling as he walks under it with the Explosive Gel.
- Perform a Ledge Takedown.
Once Freeze is weakened, Batman must perform a Beatdown and start again. Every time a strategy is used, however, Freeze will deploy counter-measures (usually involving him freezing whatever you used to attack him). If the player doesn't leave any footprint or breaks the line of sight between him and Freeze, he will occasionally send out heat-seeking drones that will bombard Batman once they discover his location. If Batman destroys these drones with his Batarangs, Freeze will simply go to your location by following the trajectory of your projectiles. If the player destroys ice sculptures of Nora Fries, Freeze will be so enraged that he will go to your location. If you throw a Remote Control Batarang at Freeze, it will make him fire his freeze gun at it. Should the player make Freeze hit the ice sculpture of Nora, he will claim that he is going to end you.
Real Name: Dr. Victor Fries
Batman's Database Profile
Dr. Penelope Young
Psychological Profile: Another surprisingly intelligent inmate. Fries' narcissism and antisocial disorders are surpassed only by his intense fixation on his late wife Nora. His obsession with Nora's memory has developed into a variety of psychopathic behaviors, worsened by his narcissistic egomania and lack of concern for others. Fries's peculiar medical condition - which keeps his body temperature below zero and necessitates a variety of complicated security precautions - only furthers his antisocial tendencies.
Additional Notes: Yet another inmate here at the asylum who was formerly a doctor; certainly an odd pattern.
Treatment is difficult due to the frigid temperatures I am forced to endure in his presence.
Dr. Hugo Strange
Victor Fries A.K.A. Mr. Freeze
- Master Scientist: One of the most brillant scientific geniuses humanity has ever known, Victor is a immensely gifted researcher in cryonics and cryogenics having used his specialized expertise in that field to create powerful cryogenic weaponry as well as using it to preserve the life of his dying wife to drastically slow down the deteoriation of her incurable disease, he is also outstanding in medicine having managed to formulate a antitode for the Titan poisoning where most doctors have failed, he also would have almost succeed in finding a cure for Nora's Huntington's Chorea had it not been for the interference of the Arkham Knight militia.
- Nora's Condition: Pathologically enraged over the fate of his wife Nora.
- Altered Biology: Permanently altered to survive in a subfreezing state. The preservative chemicals seem to maybe even halt the aging. His body was even enhanced with cybernetics, with a special coolant system installed into his body. It keeps him alive in heated environments.
- Armored Suit: He wears a protective cryogenically powered armor. It seems to keep
- Strong hand-to-hand combatant: He has an adaptive style of combat abilities. Employs extensive array of cryogenic weaponry.
- Mister Freeze's Cryo-Suit
- Freeze Blasts
- Freeze Grenades
- Heat-Seeking Drones
Batman: Arkham Origins
Batman: Arkham City
Batman: Arkham Origins
Batman: Arkham City
Batman: Arkham Knight
- Mr. Freeze appeared in the DLC, Cold, Cold Heart in Arkham Origins. It involved him interrupting the "Humanitarian of the Year Awards" at Wayne Manor on New Year's Eve. That DLC focused on Freeze's origin story as told in Batman: The Animated Series. The DLC was cancelled for the Wii U.
- According to the developers for Arkham Origins, the Cold, Cold Heart DLC was made because the winter setting for Arkham Origins made it a good opportunity for Mr. Freeze to have an appearance, yet he couldn't be included in the main game because his overall role and nature (a man desperate to save his loved one) did not fit the overall mood and plot of the game (dealing with eight assassins after Batman's head, and the rise of the Joker).
- While beating Freeze down in Arkham City, it was subtly implied that Joker's blood started to affect Batman because while he punched Freeze, he hallucinated Joker's face instead of Freeze's; a similar thing happened in Arkham Knight when Batman was beating the Arkham Knight down and saw Joker.
- Mr. Freeze's cell, which was in the same wing as Arkham's most deranged cases, could be seen in Extreme Incarceration at the Penitentiary in Arkham Asylum, and could be scanned to unlock his bio, which revealed that he had escaped prior to the game.
- It could be considered odd that Freeze's cell is in the same wing as Arkham's most deranged cases, seeing as that he is not really insane. He is actually obsessively searching for a cure for his wife, willing to commit crimes to achieve his goal, but he does not have a mental disease or anything, like some of Batman's other enemies.
- In Dr. Young's Notes, Penguin wrote his signature to only state that there was an alliance. It was presumably the alliance that they made during the Cold, Cold Heart DLC.
- Also, in Freeze's profile picture for Dr. Young's Notes, his design (and the design of his cryo-gun) closely resembled that of his design in Batman: The Animated Series.
- There was a glitch when fighting Freeze. If he saw you with a railing in front of him, he attempted to walk to you, but ran into the rails. He continued walking in that direction and did not move at all. The only way to snap him out of his trance was to hit him with something either beside or behind him.
- Although Mr. Freeze was generally an antagonist in the game, he also served as an ally to Batman as he developed the cure to the Titan Disease and gave him the Freeze Blasts. That reflected his status of being an anti-hero rather than a full-on villain. That came full circle in Arkham Knight as he was a supporting protagonist instead of a boss (though he almost threatened to kill Batman at first) since the mission was about helping Nora; and he even provided covering fire during the final tank battle.
- That was similar to Catwoman's role in the game as she, too, helped Batman without being his actual ally.
- When you completed Nora's side mission and went back to Freeze, his visor was still broken from the boss fight. But when you went to Freeze at Nora's location and encountered him again, his visor was fixed. It could be possible that Freeze had fixed his visor between his appearances (or he had a spare helmet).
- Once Freeze was notified of Nora's location, you would actually be able to see a trail of ice made over the water which lead from the back entrance of the old GCPD Building to the warehouse where Nora was being kept.
- Freeze's Freeze Gun ended up in the GCPD Lockup Evidence Room, where it was used by Aaron Cash and the other officers to make ice cream until they were caught by Commissioner Gordon.
- During Scarecrow and the Militia's assault on the GCPD, the two officers guarding the Evidence Room bickered over who got to use the Freeze Gun to fight the Militia.
- That was, so far, the only version of Mr. Freeze to have a secondary method of maintaining his body temperature below freezing point without needing his suit. With the secondary method being a tube of cryo-coolant that was attached to his upper left chest. However, it seemed that it was only a temporary solution and it was unable to support him for long periods of time.
- It was unknown if Freeze knew Batman's identity.
- It's also unknown if Freeze knew about his "death."
- In Arkham Knight, Mr. Freeze's suit had gauntlets that generated ice rays. This was possibly a nod to the Batman Beyond episode, "Meltdown" in which he donned a suit of armor that also generated ice rays from his wrists.
- Another nod to "Meltdown" could be the fact that it was implied that in In From The Cold, Freeze deliberately let himself be subjected to something that could kill him (In Batman Beyond, he let himself be crushed by mounds of ice after being wounded by Blight, while in Arkham Knight, he unlatched his dome to be alongside Nora, which exposed him to the heat that could kill him to be with her).
- In Knight, Mr. Freeze's skin appeared to be peeling, which implied that (like it did in The New Batman Adventures) his body was beginning to deteriorate due to his condition. It had already begun doing so in City, since his ears were left as stubs and his fingers blackened at the tips. However, in Knight, Freeze's ears reappeared; it is unknown whether this occurred naturally or if they were prosthetics.
- In Knight, instead of mocking him after being dead, Freeze vowed to avenge Batman, unlike the other villains. This showed Freeze's sense of honor, as he knew Batman would do the same for him.
- In City, Freeze's suit blocks most of his skeleton from Detective Mode. But in Arkham Knight, it no longer has such an ability.
- It can be presumed that Mr. Freeze dies shortly after the events of Arkham Knight, him having taken off his helmet, after he spends his remaining days with his wife.